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July 31, 2005

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Flu pandemic looms, but world unprepared
Seattle Times - United States
... most dangerous strain of influenza to appear in decades -- the H5N1 "bird flu ... Since the current wave of avian flu began sweeping through poultry in Southeast ...
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8 year old Indonesian girl probably had avian flu (bird flu)
Medical News Today (press release) - UK
... University of Hong Kong and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention USA, detected high positive rising microneutralisation titres specific for H5N1 in 2 ...
 

UPDATED- Pathogenic Politics: Is the Bird Flu Already Spreading in ...
Epoch Times - New York,NY,USA
... Dr. Yi Guan, a H5N1 researcher at Hong Kong University, was permitted to analyze genetic samples from avian flu-stricken birds and published his findings in ...
 

Asian bird flu strain surfaces in Siberia
Chicago Tribune - United States
No human infections have been reported from the Siberian outbreak, Russia's Agriculture Ministry said in identifying the virus as avian flu type H5N1. ...
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Posted by dymaxion at 06:47 PM | Comments (0)

July 30, 2005

News Feed


Tirol Online - vor 19 Stunden gefunden Die auch für Menschen lebensgefährliche Geflügelpest-Variante H5N1 hat sich offenbar

von Fernost nach Russland ausgebreitet. Das Virus sei bei mehreren hundert toten Vögeln in der Region Nowosibirsk festgestellt ...



Bird flu harmful to humans found in Siberia-paper


 





  • Posted on: Sat, Jul 30 2005 5:32 AM



  • Bird flu harmful to humans found in Siberia


     


    The newspaper Kommersant quoted the state veterinary service as saying laboratory experts had found the
    H5N1
    strain in samples from the

    Novosibirsk region, where an outbreak of bird flu was reported last week.



  • Posted on: Sat, Jul 30 2005 5:00 AM


  • Pig disease now in five Chinese cities

    By Crof




    Faster bioterrorism directive sought


    Posted by dymaxion at 05:11 PM | Comments (0)

    July 29, 2005

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1

    hongkong.scmp.com - Researcher vows to continue his work on bird flu Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Yesterday 10:39:00 PM - by DaaiTouLaam

    RTHK Online News - Japan confirms new birdflu case Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Yesterday 9:25:00 PM - by DaaiTouLaam

    Flu Wiki - Main - Home Page Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Yesterday 4:10:00 PM - by johnmarkos

    Avian Flu - What we need to know: Indonesia won't institute mass culling Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — trouble brewing: "today's Strait Times (no link available) that Indonesia will in fact not comply with its promised program of mass cullings. The government claims it does not have enough money to compensate farmers (it would need about $90 million and c
     
    Yesterday 3:43:00 AM - by enochchoi

    RTHK Online News - Joint centre to halt all bird flu research Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Yesterday 2:43:00 AM - by DaaiTouLaam

    Monday

    Bird Flu Deaths Sow Panic In Wealthy Jakarta Suburb ?person-person spread of H5N1 Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — "Rafei's wife and his mother, speaking in interviews outside their house, said they did not know how he and the daughters got sick. Rafei was a busy professional who set out early every morning on his two-hour commute to Jakarta's downtown financial distr
     
    Monday, July 25, 2005 6:22:00 PM - by enochchoi

    Reuters AlertNet - Indonesia to kill pigs in fight against bird flu Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Monday, July 25, 2005 6:17:00 PM - by enochchoi

    AVIAN INFLUENZA - EASTERN ASIA (75): INDONESIA, PIGS Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — promed
     
    Monday, July 25, 2005 6:16:00 PM - by enochchoi

    Avian influenza | Malign influences | Economist.com Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — although a politician claims it's the same genetic profile as traditional H5N1, it's possible this is a mutated virus that has gained ability to go human-human
     
    Monday, July 25, 2005 11:45:00 AM - by enochchoi

    Time Line on H5N1 Bird Flu Pandemic Move to Phase 6 Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Monday, July 25, 2005 8:56:00 AM - by sebbacon

    Sunday

    china.scmp.com - 300 dead egrets spark bird virus fears in Guangzhou Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Sunday, July 24, 2005 9:48:00 PM - by DaaiTouLaam

    Telegraph | News | China withholds vital information for tackling deadly bird flu virus Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Sunday, July 24, 2005 1:09:00 PM - by guruzilla

    RTHK Online News - Birdflu infected pigs to be slaughtered Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Sunday, July 24, 2005 3:11:00 AM - by DaaiTouLaam

    Last Week

    Summer flu, pandemic flu and tags Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 5:18:00 PM - by southern1

    H5N1 Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 2:43:00 PM - by southern1

    Foreign Affairs - Preparing for the Next Pandemic - Michael T. Osterholm Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 12:49:00 PM - by MeekMok0

    The Agonist | thoughtful, global, timely Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 12:41:00 PM - by MeekMok0

    Flu Wiki - Consequences --> Background of her scenario Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 11:58:00 AM - by southern1

    MaltaToday (flu pandemic) Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 11:35:00 AM - by southern1

    Widespread Human H5N1 Bird Flu Infections In China? Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 11:35:00 AM - by MeekMok0

    Reuters AlertNet - Roche's Tamiflu suppresses Vietnam avian flu-study Open link in new window

    del.icio.us/tag/h5n1 — (no description)
     
    Thursday, July 21, 2005 11:31:00 AM - by southern1
    Posted by dymaxion at 05:59 PM | Comments (0)

    Today

    US health experts plan for bird flu pandemic Open link in new window

    Feedster on: H5N1 —

    US health experts are putting together a plan for dealing with a bird flu pandemic should one break out. The plan includes deciding who should be vaccinated and who should get antiviral drugs first. The H5N1 strain of avian flu has killed more than 50 people in Asia. Health experts fear it could kill millions around the world if it mutates into a form that could easily spread from person to person.

     

    From RTHK On Internet - Instant News (feed)
    See also links to this feed and more from this feed


     
    Today 9:05:26 PM
     

    U.S. working up plan to fight bird flu pandemic Open link in new window

    Feedster on: H5N1 — Infectious Diseases. The H5N1 strain of avian flu first surfaced in poultry in Hong Kong and China eight years ago and has killed more than 50 people in Asia, including in Vietnam, Copyright: Copyright 2005, Topix.net

    From Search: avian flu - Topix.net (feed)
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    Today 8:26:23 PM

    H5N1 virus found near home of Indonesian victims Open link in new window

    Feedster on: H5N1 — Centre For Infectious Disease Research and Policy Jul 27 2005 10:00PM GMT

    From Moreover Technologies - Asia-Pacific latest (feed)
    See also links to this feed and more from this feed


     
    Today 7:33:24 PM

    Aside Flu Swine That Virus Results Open link in new window

    Feedster on: H5N1 — Aside Flu Swine That Virus Results

    ...e Flu Swine That Virus Search Results IP and Trademark Notice Aside Flu Swine That Virus links and resources. Swine Flu Expose by Eleanora I. McBean, Ph.D., N.D. (one document) This booklet on Swine Flu hazards and fakery is part of a larger book on vaccination, titled, VACCINATION CONDEMNED BY COMPETENT DOCTORS. ... separate section set aside for their ... Page Title ... transplants" is unwarranted. Aside from how many people would ... out: You can't screen for a virus that you don't know is present ... million died in 1918 from a swine flu virus that ... H5N1 in Swine ......

    From vicar destroys obscure wolfman (feed)
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    Today 7:21:58 PM

    World Events :: RE: Bird Flu/Influenza Pandemic Threat: UPDATES Open link in new window

    Feedster on: H5N1 — Author: Fredfredson
     

     

    Posted: Wed Jul 27, 2005 10:57 pm (GMT 1)
     

    From Fredness (not me) at: http://www.curevents.com/vb/showthread.php?t=19286

    News articles from Mar 2005 to July 25 warn of Pandemic
    So why is there still a credibility problem?
    I searched the magazines on my public library's website and found over one hundred articles have been published. Yet the lady answering the phone at local health dept doesn't believe that Bird Flu is a risk, politicians don't return e-mails, co-workers and spouses think we are paranoid.

    It can be argued that publishers just want to sell magazines. Panic sells. It is important to focus on the reality of the situation. Unfortunately without more test reports, the reality we face is not clear. We can only predict based on the information we have. Education and knowledge are our best weapons against fear.

    Hopefully the Congressional testimony reported below on June 30 will translate into a public education campaign. That can't start soon enough as far as I am concerned.

    The text of any of these can be found through your local library, some may be online, or I can post it upon request (with the exception of those that refernce "Article Linker").


    One article that got my attention was from a publication from the CDC called Emerging Infectious Diseases www.cdc.gov/eid. There are several good articles published in July. On Oct 18, 2004, two eagles smuggled into Belgium from Thailand were found to have H5N1. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol11no05/05-0211.htm


    Academic Search Elite; Alt HealthWatch; Clinical Pharmacology; MasterFILE Premier; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Health Source - Consumer Edition; Military & Government Collection for h5n1 and pandemic
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    How Much Tamiflu is Enough? By: Enserink, Martin. Science Now, 7/19/2005, p2, 2p, 1bw; (AN 17687151)
    HTML Full Text

    2.
    Avian Flu: A State of Unreadiness. By: Davis, Mike. Nation, 7/18/2005, Vol. 281 Issue 3, p27, 4p, 1bw; (AN 17478197)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    3.
    Potentially More Lethal Variant Hits Migratory Birds in China. By: Normile, Dennis. Science, 7/8/2005, Vol. 309 Issue 5732, p231, 2/3p, 1 map, 1c; (AN 17671075)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    4.
    JOBS. By: Bhattacharjee, Yudhijit. Science, 7/8/2005, Vol. 309 Issue 5732, p243, 2/3p, 2c; (AN 17671091)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    5.
    Avian influenza, Viet Nam update. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 7/8/2005, Vol. 80 Issue 27, p233, 2p
    PDF Full Text (78K)

    6.
    Poliomyelitis, Angola. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 7/8/2005, Vol. 80 Issue 27, p234, 1/4p
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    7.
    When warnings become a scare. By: Lamb, Gregory M.. Christian Science Monitor, 7/7/2005, Vol. 97 Issue 156, p15, 1/2p, 1c; (AN 17537771)
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    8.
    Bird flu found in migratory geese in China By: Anita Manning. USA Today, 07/07/2005; (AN J0E291998706005)
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    9.
    New Avian Influenza Variant Found in China. By: Normile, Dennis., Science Now, 7/6/2005, p1, 2p, 1bw
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    10.
    Wildlife Trade and Global Disease Emergence. By: Karesh, William B.; Cook, Robert A.; Bennett, Elizabeth L.; Newcomb, James. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1000, 3p, 1c; (AN 17520809)
    PDF Full Text (1.5MB)

    11.
    Influenza A H5N1 Replication Sites in Humans. By: Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Sangsiriwut, Kantima; Pooruk, Phisanu; Srisook, Kanittar; Peiris, Malik; Nicholls, John M.; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Vanprapar, Nirun; Auewarakul, Prasert. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1036, 6p, 2c; (AN 17521006)
    PDF Full Text (3.0MB)

    12.
    Avian Influenza H5N1 and Healthcare Workers. By: Schultsz, Constance; Vo Cong Dong; Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Nguyen Thi Hanh Le; Lim, Wilina; Tran Tan Thanh; Dolecek, Christiane; De Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1158, 2p, 1 chart; (AN 17521701)
    PDF Full Text (213K)

    13.
    Editor's Note. Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 84 Issue 4, p2, 1p; (AN 17327777)
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    14.
    The Next Pandemic? By: Garrett, Laurie. Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 84 Issue 4, p3, 21p, 1bw; (AN 17327784)
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    15.
    Preparing for the Next Pandemic. By: Osterholm, Michael T.. Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 84 Issue 4, p24, 14p, 1bw; (AN 17327791)
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    16.
    CE test on THE NATURE OF EMERGING ZOONOTIC DISEASES: ECOLOGY, PREDICTION, AND PREVENTION. MLO: Medical Laboratory Observer, Jul2005, Vol. 37 Issue 7, p20, 2p
    PDF Full Text (901K)

    17.
    Wildlife Trade and Global Disease Emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1000, 3p; (AN 17520809)
    PDF Full Text (1.5MB)

    18.
    Influenza A H5N1 Replication Sites in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1036, 6p; (AN 17521006)
    PDF Full Text (3.0MB)

    19.
    Avian Influenza H5N1 and Healthcare Workers. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Jul2005, Vol. 11 Issue 7, p1158, 2p; (AN 17521701)
    PDF Full Text (213K)

    20.
    FLU SEASON PREPARATION By: GEORGE B. ABERCROMBIE; PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER; HOFFMANN-LA ROCHE INC. FDCH Congressional Testimony, 06/30/2005; (AN 32Y1933162346)
    HTML Full Text

    21.
    FLU SEASON PREPARATION By: BRUCE G. GELLIN; DIRECTOR; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. FDCH Congressional Testimony, 06/30/2005; (AN 32Y3982252508)
    HTML Full Text

    22.
    FLU SEASON PREPARATION By: JAMES W. LEDUC; DIRECTOR; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. FDCH Congressional Testimony, 06/30/2005; (AN 32Y4079002747)
    HTML Full Text

    23.
    SOUNDBITES. New Scientist, 6/25/2005, Vol. 186 Issue 2505, p16, 1/4p; (AN 17602321)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    24.
    Lapses Worry Bird Flu Experts. By: Normile, Dennis; Enserink, Martin; Yidong, Gong. Science, 6/24/2005, Vol. 308 Issue 5730, p1849, 2p; (AN 17618970)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    25.
    Avian Flu Concerns. By: Stephenson, Joan. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 6/15/2005, Vol. 293 Issue 23, p2850, 1p; (AN 17338079)
    Linked Full Text

    26.
    Bird Flu Tracked in Western China. By: Normile, Dennis. Science Now, 6/13/2005, p1, 7/9p; (AN 17347423)
    HTML Full Text

    27.
    Quick action may stop global bird flu epidemic By: Paul Wiseman. USA Today, 06/06/2005; (AN J0E050197929405)
    HTML Full Text

    28.
    Time to send in the inspectors. New Scientist, 6/4/2005, Vol. 186 Issue 2502, p5, 1/4p; (AN 17318658)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    29.
    Can Tamiflu save us from bird flu? By: MacKenzie, Debora. New Scientist, 6/4/2005, Vol. 186 Issue 2502, p10, 1p; (AN 17318669)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    30.
    Flu in wild birds sparks fears of mutating virus. By: Cyranoski, David. Nature, 6/2/2005, Vol. 435 Issue 7042, p542, 2p; DOI: 10.1038/435542a; (AN 17230953)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    31.
    THE NEXT PLAGUE? By: Slenske, Michael. Atlantic (2004), Jun2005, Vol. 295 Issue 5, p38, 2/3p; (AN 16942882)
    HTML Full Text PDF Full Text (628K)

    32.
    A new enemy at the gates? By: French, Roger; Berriman, Mark; Lembke, Loren. New Vegetarian & Natural Health, Winter2005, p3, 3/4p; (AN 17240520)
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    33.
    news from near and far. By: Berriman, Mark; Fraser, Robert. New Vegetarian & Natural Health, Winter2005, p10, 2p; (AN 17240531)
    PDF Full Text (1.2MB)

    34.
    News. MLO: Medical Laboratory Observer, Jun2005, Vol. 37 Issue 6, p8, 1/2p
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    35.
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    36.
    Genetic Analyses Suggest Bird Flu Virus Is Evolving. By: Normile, Dennis. Science Now, 5/27/2005, p9, 2p, 1bw; (AN 17194350)
    HTML Full Text

    37.
    Genetic Analyses Suggest Bird Flu Virus Is Evolving. By: Normile, Dennis. Science, 5/27/2005, Vol. 308 Issue 5726, p1234, 2p, 1c; (AN 17266376)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    38.
    Race against time. By: Fauci, Anthony S.. Nature, 5/26/2005, Vol. 435 Issue 7041, p423, 2p; DOI: 10.1038/435423a; (AN 17144407)
    Check for full-text via Article Linker

    39.
    PLANNING FOR PANDEMIC FLU By: ANDREW T. PAVIA; CHAIR; INFECTIOUS DISEASES SOCIETY OF AMERICA. FDCH Congressional Testimony, 05/26/2005; (AN 32Y4198954104)
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    40.
    WHO's call for international pandemic action unheeded. By: Lett, Dan. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 5/24/2005, Vol. 172 Issue 11, p1429, 1p, 1c; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.050490; (AN 17024477)
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    41.
    Vietnam needs cash to stave off future outbreaks of bird flu. By: Watts, Jonathan. Lancet, 5/21/2005, Vol. 365 Issue 9473, p1759, 2p, 2c; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66565-8; (AN 17093798)
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    42.
    One nation's bird flu fight is also world's By: Paul Wiseman. USA Today, 05/04/2005; (AN J0E211892343805)
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    43.
    Governments in a dilemma over bird flu. By: Marshall, Sarah Jane. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, May2005, Vol. 83 Issue 5, p326, 2p; (AN 16946294)
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    44.
    Asia's economic outlook: A view from Australia. By: Marden, Peter. Ecodate, May2005, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p1, 6p; (AN 17341714)
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    45.
    Avian Influenza Risk Perception, Hong Kong. By: Fielding, Richard; Lam, Wendy W. T.; Ho, Ella Y. Y.; Tai Hing Lam; Hedley, Anthony J.; Leung, Gabriel M.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, May2005, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p677, 6p, 2 charts; (AN 16944811)
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    46.
    Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium. By: Van Borm, Steven; Thomas, Isabelle; Hanquet, Germaine; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Boschmans, Marc; Dupont, Gerald; Decaestecker, Mireille; Snacken, Gerald; Van den Berg, Thierry. Emerging Infectious Diseases, May2005, Vol. 11 Issue 5, p702, 4p, 1 chart, 1 diagram, 1c; (AN 16944973)
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    47.
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    48.
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    49.
    Why so few male RNs? Nursing, May2005, Vol. 35 Issue 5, p35, 3/8p; (AN 16811016)
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    50.
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    51.
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    52.
    Cooping Up Avian Flu. By: Soares, Christine. Scientific American, May2005, Vol. 292 Issue 5, p20, 2p, 1c; (AN 16729928)
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    53.
    INNOVATIONS. By: Arnst, Catherine; Port, Otis. Business Week, 4/18/2005 Issue 3929, p89, 1/4p, 1c; (AN 16695681)
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    54.
    Sitting ducks. Economist, 4/16/2005, Vol. 375 Issue 8422, p35, 2p, 1 graph, 1c; (AN 16781163)
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    55.
    The ghost of pandemics past. By: Mack, Thomas M.. Lancet, 4/16/2005, Vol. 365 Issue 9468, p1370, 3p, 1bw; (AN 16779599)
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    57.
    Cross-Reactivity to Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Viruses after Vaccination with Nonadjuvanted and MF59-Adjuvanted Influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) Vaccine: A Potential Priming Strategy. By: Stephenson, Iain; Bugarini, Roberto; Nicholson, Karl G.; Podda, Audino; Wood, John M.; Zambon, Maria C.; Katz, Jacqueline M.. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 4/15/2005, Vol. 191 Issue 8, p1210, 6p; (AN 16499400)
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    58.
    Vaccination will work better than culling, say bird flu experts. By: Butler, Declan. Nature, 4/14/2005, Vol. 434 Issue 7035, p810, 1p; DOI: 10.1038/4344810a; (AN 17134081)
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    59.
    FISCAL 2006 APPROPRIATIONS: LABOR, HHS, AND EDUCATION By: BRUCE GELLIN; DIRECTOR; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. FDCH Congressional Testimony, 04/12/2005; (AN 32Y3363791429)
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    60.
    Germ Warfare. By: Fiorino, Frances. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4/11/2005, Vol. 162 Issue 15, p39, 1p, 1c; (AN 16761712)
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    61.
    The Week. By: Ozernoy, Ilana. U.S. News & World Report, 4/11/2005, Vol. 138 Issue 13, p16, 3p, 2c; (AN 16619185)
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    62.
    Travel vaccinations & malaria prophylaxis. Pulse, 4/9/2005, Vol. 65 Issue 14, p64, 2p
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    63.
    Preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Nursing Standard, 4/6/2005, Vol. 19 Issue 30, p20, 2/3p; (AN 16729697)
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    64.
    Intravenous drug use a risk factor for DVT in younger people. Nursing Standard, 4/6/2005, Vol. 19 Issue 30, p20, 1/3p; (AN 16729698)
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    65.
    OF BIRDS AND MEN. By: Shute, Nancy; Querna, Elizabeth; Bainbridge, Bill; Brink, Susan; Ramachandran, Nisha. U.S. News & World Report, 4/4/2005, Vol. 138 Issue 12, p40, 9p, 5c; (AN 16527831)
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    SPREADING THE BIRD FLU. U.S. News & World Report, 4/4/2005, Vol. 138 Issue 12, p44, 2p, 5 diagrams, 1 map; (AN 16527835)
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    67.
    A VACCINE SOLUTION? By: Spake, Amanda. U.S. News & World Report, 4/4/2005, Vol. 138 Issue 12, p46, 2p, 2c; (AN 16527843)
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    68.
    PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS & BIOTERRORISM IN AIR TRAVEL TO BE FOCUS OF CONGRESSIONAL HEARING FDCH Press Releases, 04/04/2005; (AN 32X3133600080)
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    69.
    health. Access, Apr2005, Vol. 19 Issue 4, p4, 2p; (AN 16743037)
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    70.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases: a 10-Year Perspective from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. By: Fauci, Anthony S.; Touchette, Nancy A.; Folkers, Gregory K.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Apr2005, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p519, 7p, 4 graphs; (AN 16608552)
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    71.
    Global public health officials keeping tabs on avian influenza. (cover story) By: Arias, Donya C.. Nation's Health, Apr2005, Vol. 35 Issue 3, p1, 2p, 1c, 1bw; (AN 16590225)
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    72.
    Avian influenza -- Viet Nam and Cambodia -- update. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 4/1/2005, Vol. 80 Issue 13, p113, 2p
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    73.
    Grippe aviaire -- Viet Nam et Cambodge -- mise à jour. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 4/1/2005, Vol. 80 Issue 13, p113, 2p
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    74.
    Research brief: Bird flu vaccine trial. GP: General Practitioner, 4/1/2005, p5, 2p
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    1.
    Sharp's Plasmacluster Ions Effectively Deactivate H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus. Asia Pacific Biotech News, 6/15/2005, Vol. 9 Issue 11, p469, 1p; (AN 17539245)
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    2.
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    OF BIRDS AND MEN. By: Shute, Nancy; Querna, Elizabeth; Bainbridge, Bill; Brink, Susan; Ramachandran, Nisha. U.S. News & World Report, 4/4/2005, Vol. 138 Issue 12, p40, 9p, 5c; (AN 16527831)
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    8.
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    BRACING FOR BIRD FLU. By: Hawaleshka, Danylo. Maclean's, 3/21/2005, Vol. 118 Issue 12, p46, 2p, 1c, 1bw; (AN 16509555)
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    11.
    BRIEFING: THE BIRD FLU. By: Park, Alice. Time Canada, 3/7/2005, Vol. 165 Issue 10, p7, 3/8p, 1c; (AN 16486788)
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    15.
    Developing a Serum May Be Easy Compared With Producing Enough And Deciding How to Distribute It. By: Hamilton, David P.; Naik, Gautam. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 2/28/2005, Vol. 245 Issue 40, pB1, 0p, 1 map; (AN 16239832)
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    16.
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    17.
    Worth a Pound of Cure. By: The Editors. Scientific American, Jan2005, Vol. 292 Issue 1, p8, 1p, 1c; (AN 15285912)
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    Today 5:57:51 PM

    Montagnards ... Open link in new window

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    100 Vietnamese Montagnards May be Relocated to US

     

    By VOA News 27 July 2005

     

    More than 100 Vietnamese Montagnards were who forcibly repatriated from Cambodia earlier this month may get a chance to resettle in the United States.

    A spokesman for the U.S. Embassy in Hanoi says U.S. and Vietnamese officials are discussing possible options, including resettling the Montagnards in the United States.

    The spokesman tells VOA that Hanoi supports the review of the case.

    The Montagnards, from Vietnam's Central Highlands were among several hundred who fled to Cambodia last year after security forces cracked down on demonstrators protesting Hanoi's land confiscation policy and lack of religious freedom.

    They were forcibly sent back to Vietnam after the United Nations denied them refugee status.

     

    Human Rights Watch condemns Cambodian police brutality PHNOM PENH (AFP) -- Human Rights Watch Tuesday joined a chorus of condemnation over Cambodian police brutality during the forced repatriation of scores of Montagnard asylum seekers to their native Vietnam.

    Ninety-four ethnic minority Montagnards who were among hundreds who have fled Vietnam alleging religious persecution and confiscation of their lands were deported last Wednesday after their refugee status claims were rejected by the UN. Seven Cambodians were among them and turned back at the border.

    New York-based HRW said that at 6:00 am dozens of riot police, some armed with AK-47 assault rifles, entered the facility housing the Montagnards, who sat gripping each others' arms to avoid being moved.

    "After the asylum seekers ignored an order to board the buses, the police made no attempt at negotiation. Instead they began to slap, hit and use batons to beat the asylum seekers," the group said in a statement. "They dragged people out of the facility by their arms, legs and, in several cases, by their hair, and pushed them on to buses. Police beat at least one woman with a baby strapped to her back, and kicked other Montagnards as they were seated."

    Police also used electric prods to inflict shock, the group alleged after receiving eyewitness accounts of the incident, which journalists and human rights monitors were barred from viewing.

    "There was no excuse for using electric batons or beating unarmed individuals engaged in peaceful civil disobedience," said Brad Adams, HRW Asia director.

    HRW called for an independent investigation and punishment for those who authorised or used excessive force, which it said violated a January 2005 pact between the UN's refugee agency and Cambodian and Vietnamese governments.

    This agreement provided that the agency would work with the governments to "bring back (to Vietnam) in an orderly and safe fashion" and "in conformity with national and international law" those Montagnards who do not agree to either resettle abroad or "voluntarily" return to Vietnam, HRW said.

    HRW also expressed concern for the safety of those forcibly returned, saying it had documented cases of intimidation, detention and police abuse of Montagnards who had already voluntarily returned.

    It called on the Vietnamese government to provide the UN refugee agency and other independent monitors with free access to all returned Montagnards.

    Rights groups have already complained that monitoring visits to the Central Highlands where the mostly Christian Montagnards live were limited.

    The United States has expressed concern over the repatriations and a coalition of prominent Cambodia groups also condemned the police actions.

    Vietnam has said that the returnees would not be punished for "illegally" leaving the communist country.

    Montagnards began fleeing to Cambodia after security forces crushed demonstrations in 2001. In April last year thousands again took to the streets, triggering another crackdown, according to rights groups, and a second exodus.

     

    Police Brutality Against Montagnards in Cambodia

    Witness Accounts and Chronology of Events

     

    WITNESS ACCOUNTS The following eyewitness accounts were obtained from a variety of sources, including people living near Site 1, relief workers who were inside and outside Site 1, and the deportees themselves, some of whom were in telephone contact with human rights monitors during the deportation.Witness One Around 4:30 am I could hear the Montagnards singing hymns inside the house. By 5:30 police had set up roadblocks and sealed off the entire area. They would not allow reporters or human rights monitors to get close. Most of the Montagnards had assembled in the downstairs courtyard, where they were sitting down. At 6 am, I could see the different types of security forces as they entered the compound and how they were armed. The Montagnards remained seated, huddled in a group. As the police began to seize people to drag them out, I heard a tremendous crying and wailing break out. The police began to randomly hit seated Montagnards with batons. A second group of riot police marched in, with automatic rifles slung over shoulders, and set upon them with electric batons. Panic broke out and the shrieking got even louder. I saw Montagnards being chased by police as they fled to the back of the shelter and upstairs. Some scampered up on the roof of the shelter (and one nearly slipped off) before being ordered down by police. Eventually everyone was dragged or led out of the shelter and onto two buses. By 6 pm the buses, escorted by several truckloads of riot police, drove off. Witness Two The Montagnards were completely non-violent. Some were gathered in a group and began to pray and then a terrible sound of lamentation and wailing came. Some moved forward and sat clinging to one another, crying. They did not move when the police wanted them to go onto the bus. Police pulled one man out in front and beat him as he was lying on the cement. He writhed when he was stuck with a baton. More people were beaten and dragged or carried out the gate. I saw a policeman kick one woman in the stomach. Police in white helmets arrived carrying large black batons, which they beat people with. Some people were kicked. Another set of police arrived wearing green helmets and carrying electric batons. I saw the lights flashing on the electric batons and I saw people groaning with pain when they were struck. When they struck a woman with a child on her back, I yelled "Stop them! Stop them!" A UNHCR staff person called out, "No weapons!" The police continued to beat and drag people and the electric prod lights flashed. I yelled "Torture!" One woman was mistakenly dragged and beaten despite appealing several times that she was not supposed to be deported. Two children, her nieces, were watching from the upstairs balcony as she was beaten and dragged to the bus. She and her children were extremely traumatized. She was eventually removed from the bus. When a second bus came to take people, some of the Montagnards hid upstairs and were beaten. Some were on the roof. I saw police running after some people who had run upstairs. The police were pushing them down [stairs]. At this point some began coming down voluntarily and got on the bus, although they were crying as they walked. The behavior of the police was not acceptable. The Montagnards were not violent. Witness Three I saw the Montagnards sitting clinging together on the floor, wailing. The police grabbed one man and he would not move, so five police moved in to forcibly move him. They beat him with their hands and kicked him. They used an electric shock baton on him and he writhed in pain and his head banged on the cement. It seemed he became unconscious. Four police lifted him onto the bus. On the way out, his head banged against the gate. When the police threw the man onto the bus, two lines of police formed a protective barrier from the gate to the buses. Then I saw the police with black batons hitting the group. Other police had batons with batteries in them which they used to shock people. Some police had big guns and pistols. I saw police hit a woman with a baby strapped on her back. It was like a war. The Montagnards did not fight. The main group just sat there, clinging to one another, wailing. Some refugees ran upstairs and the police ran after them. Witness Four I heard the cries and saw the police push and drag the Montagnards onto the bus. I saw a policeman beating one man with his hands and another officer hitting a man who was hanging onto his wife and brother. I followed them to the bus. When they got on the bus, the policeman kicked the second man. One woman had asked me to get her things. When I went upstairs, I saw police all over the place looking for people. I took the woman's things to the bus, but the police would not let me go back inside to get the clothes of others. Witness Five I saw Montagnards sitting on the floor clung together in a group. Many were crying and wailing in grief. Ordinary police were surrounding the first row of Montagnards, and began trying to drag people out from the group. Four police dragged one man out. He suddenly dropped to the floor and banged his head on the stone, before being dragged away. The police tried to drag more away but this was difficult as they were so tightly clung together. The ordinary police then stepped back and made way for a force in white helmets, who walked up carrying big black sticks. These police began beating into the first row of refugees with their sticks. There was then a call for "NO weapons!" I saw three refugees, including one woman, being dragged out by their legs and in other ways. As one man was dragged out, his wife followed him carrying a baby and screaming. One man was crying and screaming as he was carried out by four officers. I saw two lines of men in camouflage uniforms and small green helmets come into the site. I heard the sound of electric batons and turned to see two of these men holding batons in the air and turning them on. One put his baton on the arm of a refugee, who immediately jolted back. Panic then followed, with refugees running in all directions, and into the house. Police came out of the house escorting people. Many of the refugees started to come out of the house still crying and wailing but they did not have to be forced by the police to board the buses. One woman signaled to me to get her things from the house so I ran upstairs to her room out the back and found two policemen in there searching through her things. They left when they saw me. I grabbed two bags and some clothes and ran back down to the bus to put them on board. I then saw a big group shouting to me, telling me that one lady was not supposed to be on the bus. She was then removed from the bus. Witness Six At 5:55 the police entered the gate. The people sat down on the ground floor and were praying when the police came in. people were screaming, crying. The people held hands together. The police beat people. They hit people on their hands to try to get them to let go of each other. Then they used batons to shock people. Some people ran upstairs, some ran into their rooms, some went on the roof. The police went into each room. We saw police beating people upstairs. Four people were beaten so badly that they could not go down the stairs by themselves. People were put onto two buses. The people were crying when they were in the bus. Witness Seven We are sad to describe the circumstances this morning which caused us great grief. To the Christians in [Site 1], the grief was immeasurable. The government had ordered them sent back to Vietnam, for reasons that remain unclear. Before breakfast, the sound of wailing was taken up. Such a cry of pain and grief I had never heard before and hope to never hear again. The whole house was wailing in protestation against being extradited to Vietnam. You could hear the terror in their cries. I saw men and women being carried or dragged out to the trucks and buses waiting to taken them away. One woman was dragged by her hair. It was a dreadful, sad scene. It is unimaginable what they face at the end of their journey. CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 4:30 am: Montagnards in Site 1 camp are heard singing hymns and praying. 5:30 am: Police blockade the street in front of Site 1. Journalists are sent away. 5:49 am: UNHCR vehicle spotted in front of Site 1. 6:00 am: Large group of Montagnards can be seen sitting down in the front courtyard of Site 1. Witnesses later say they were conducting a prayer meeting. Police escort cars and two trucks of intervention police (wearing white helmets, carrying wooden batons; some with AK-47 rifles over their shoulders) arrive at the site, along with two buses. Trucks of another type of intervention police (wearing green helmets and camouflage uniforms, carrying electric shock batons) arrive minutes later. 6:07 am: Monitors from the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights arrive but are denied access to Site 1 and, along with journalists, are kept 300 meters away. 6:10 am: Loud screaming and wailing is heard from Site 1 as regular police (primarily those regularly assigned to guard the five UNHCR sites) begin to order people to get on the buses. No one responds or steps forward, so police then start to beat and drag people out, one by one. They drag people by their arms and then use more force, dragging one man by his feet to the bus as the other Montagnards cry out and wail. The remaining Montagnards remain seated; holding on to each other and locking arms. Thirty to forty intervention police in white helmets, carrying black batons and some with rifles slung over their shoulders, enter the site. They begin to indiscriminately beat Montagnards, who continue to remain seated. Most of the regular policemen move back at this point, although some of them can be seen kicking people or beating them on their hands, to make them break their grip with other Montagnards. Police officers kick at least one woman in the stomach. The second unit of Intervention Police, wearing green army-style helmets and camouflage uniforms, enters the site and begins beating Montagnards with electric shock batons. Most of those they shock are the people still seated in the front of the group, who recoil in pain. Panic ensues, and many people try to flee to the back of the shelter or upstairs. The police chase them up the stairs, entering each room. Police drag or push more Montagnards onto the first bus. Police pull up the shirts of several of the Montagnards and quickly shock them on their backs as they near the buses. Others are kicked or beaten while inside the buses.

    Posted by dymaxion at 05:48 PM | Comments (0)

    Today

    Avian influenza H5N1 and healthcare workers. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul; 11(7): 1158-9
    Schultsz C, Dong VC, Chau NV, Le NT, Lim W, Thanh TT, Dolecek C, de Jong MD, Hien TT, Farrar J

     


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Influenza A H5N1 replication sites in humans. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul; 11(7): 1036-41
    Uiprasertkul M, Puthavathana P, Sangsiriwut K, Pooruk P, Srisook K, Peiris M, Nicholls JM, Chokephaibulkit K, Vanprapar N, Auewarakul P

    Tissue tropism and pathogenesis of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 disease in humans is not well defined. In mammalian experimental models, H5N1 influenza is a disseminated disease. However, limited previous data from human autopsies have not shown evidence of virus dissemination beyond the lung. We investigated a patient with fatal H5N1 influenza. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in lung, intestine, and spleen tissues, but positive-stranded viral RNA indicating virus replication was confined to the lung and intestine. Viral antigen was detected in pneumocytes by immunohistochemical tests. Tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA was seen in lung tissue. In contrast to disseminated infection documented in other mammals and birds, H5N1 viral replication in humans may be restricted to the lung and intestine, and the major site of H5N1 viral replication in the lung is the pneumocyte.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30): 10682-7
    Hulse-Post DJ, Sturm-Ramirez KM, Humberd J, Seiler P, Govorkova EA, Krauss S, Scholtissek C, Puthavathana P, Buranathai C, Nguyen TD, Long HT, Naipospos TS, Chen H, Ellis TM, Guan Y, Peiris JS, Webster RG

    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Protection against multiple influenza A subtypes by vaccination with highly conserved nucleoprotein. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Vaccine. 2005 Jul 9;
    Epstein SL, Kong WP, Misplon JA, Lo CY, Tumpey TM, Xu L, Nabel GJ

    Influenza epidemic and pandemic strains cannot be predicted with certainty. Current vaccines elicit antibodies effective against specific strains, but new strategies are urgently needed for protection against unexpected strains. DNA vaccines encoding conserved antigens protect animals against diverse subtypes, but their potency needs improvement. We tested DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral boost immunization to nucleoprotein (NP). Strong antibody and T cell responses were induced. Protection against challenge was T cell-dependent and substantially more potent than DNA vaccination alone. Importantly, vaccination protected against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Thus, gene-based vaccination with NP may contribute to protective immunity against diverse influenza viruses through its ability to stimulate cellular immunity.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Characterization of a human H5N1 influenza A virus isolated in 2003. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(15): 9926-32
    Shinya K, Hatta M, Yamada S, Takada A, Watanabe S, Halfmann P, Horimoto T, Neumann G, Kim JH, Lim W, Guan Y, Peiris M, Kiso M, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y

    In 2003, H5N1 avian influenza virus infections were diagnosed in two Hong Kong residents who had visited the Fujian province in mainland China, affording us the opportunity to characterize one of the viral isolates, A/Hong Kong/213/03 (HK213; H5N1). In contrast to H5N1 viruses isolated from humans during the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, HK213 retained several features of aquatic bird viruses, including the lack of a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk and the absence of additional oligosaccharide chains at the globular head of the hemagglutinin molecule. It demonstrated weak pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but caused lethal infection in chickens. The original isolate failed to produce disease in ducks but became more pathogenic after five passages. Taken together, these findings portray the HK213 isolate as an aquatic avian influenza A virus without the molecular changes associated with the replication of H5N1 avian viruses in land-based poultry such as chickens. This case challenges the view that adaptation to land-based poultry is a prerequisite for the replication of aquatic avian influenza A viruses in humans.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Virulence may determine the necessary duration and dosage of oseltamivir treatment for highly pathogenic a/vietnam/1203/04 influenza virus in mice. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 15; 192(4): 665-72
    Yen HL, Monto AS, Webster RG, Govorkova EA

    Background. Control of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses is a major public-health concern. Antiviral drugs could be the only option early in the pandemic.Methods. BALB/c mice were given oseltamivir (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg/day) twice daily by oral gavage; the first dose was given 4 h before inoculation with H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203/04) virus. Five- and 8-day regimens were evaluated.Results. Oseltamivir produced a dose-dependent antiviral effect against VN1203/04 in vivo (P<.01). The 5-day regimen at 10 mg/kg/day protected 50% of mice; deaths in this treatment group were delayed and indicated the replication of residual virus after the completion of treatment. Eight-day regimens improved oseltamivir efficacy, and dosages of 1 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced virus titers in organs and provided 60% and 80% survival rates, respectively (P<.05). Overall, the efficacy of the 5- and 8-day regimens differed significantly (death hazard ratio, 2.658; P<.01). The new H5N1 antigenic variant VN1203/04 was more pathogenic in mice than was A/HK/156/97 virus, and a prolonged and higher-dose oseltamivir regimen may be required for the most beneficial antiviral effect.Conclusions. Oseltamivir prophylaxis is efficacious against lethal challenge with VN1203/04 virus in mice. Viral virulence may affect the antiviral treatment schedule.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Migratory Birds. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Science. 2005 Jul 6;
    Liu J, Xiao H, Lei F, Zhu Q, Qin K, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhao D, Wang G, Feng Y, Ma J, Liu W, Wang J, Gao GF

    H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which hundreds of thousands of birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical features. Sequencing of complete genomes of four H5N1 AIV strains isolated revealed to be reassortants related to a peregrine falcon isolate from Hong Kong and showed known "highly pathogenic" characteristics. Experimental animal infections reproduced typical highly pathogenic AIV-infection symptoms and pathology.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Water Sci Technol. 2005; 51(8): 91-7
    Matsui S

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Nature. 2005 Jul 14; 436(7048): 191-2
    Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY, Qin K, Wang J, Li KS, Webster RG, Peiris JS, Guan Y

     


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Update: Influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2004-05 season. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Jul 1; 54(25): 631-4
     

    During the 2004-05 influenza season, influenza A (H1),* A (H3N2), and B viruses cocirculated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. In addition, several Asian countries continued to report widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry; in Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2004-05 influenza season peaked in February, was moderate, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide during the 2004-05 influenza season.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    [Multi-epitope DNA vaccines against avian influenza in chickens] Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2003 Sep; 19(5): 623-7
    Peng JM, Tong GZ, Wang YF, Qiu HJ

    Multiple epitopes from one or more viruses can be lined up and co-expressed in one vector to generate multi-epitopes DNA vaccines. In the study, four recombinant plasmids were constructed based on HA and NP gene of avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1): (1) pIRES/HA, carrying the complete HA gene; (2) pIRES/tHA, carrying a truncated HA gene fragment of major neutralizing antigenic epitopes; (3) pIRES/tHA-NPep, in which three CTL epitopes of NP gene of AIV were fused to the truncated HA from the C-terminal; and (4) pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, which was constructed by replacing neo gene in pIRES/ tHA-NPep with IFN-y of chicken. Fifty five SPF chickens were randomly divided into five groups and immunized with the above four constructs and control plasmid. Each chicken was intramuscally immunized with 200 microg plasmid DNA three times in a two-week interval. Two weeks after the third immunization, chickens were injected with H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus. Before the virus loading no detectable antibodies to HA were found in the chicken serum; but high levels of HI antibodies were detected in the serum of the survived chickens. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in peripheral blood of immunized chickens increased steadily after the vaccination. After virus loading all chickens in the control group died within three to eight days, and the survival rates of the four DNA vaccine groups were as follows: pIRES/HA, 54.5%; pIRES/tHA, 30%, pIRES/ tHA-NPep, 36.3%, pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, 50%. These results indicated that multi-epitopes DNA immunization can induce immune response and protect chickens from homologous virus loading.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Preparing for pandemic vaccination: an international policy agenda for vaccine development. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Public Health Policy. 2005 Apr; 26(1): 4-29
    Fedson DS

    The international use of influenza vaccine is growing, especially in developing countries. Since 1997, avian H5N1 influenza in Southeast Asia has caused several human infections and high mortality. Experts warn that the next influenza pandemic is imminent and could be severe. Prevention and control will depend on the rapid production and worldwide distribution of specific pandemic vaccines. If the vaccine supply is to be sufficient to meet global demand, issues related to the intellectual property rights for the reverse genetics technology essential for vaccine production must be resolved. In addition, candidate "pandemic-like" vaccines must be developed and tested in clinical trials to determine the most antigen sparing formulation and the best vaccination schedule. These studies must involve all vaccine companies and will require international coordination and public funding. Whether this international policy agenda for pandemic vaccine development will succeed is uncertain, but it will provide a good indication of whether "good governance" for global public health can be achieved.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Analysis of synonymous codon usage in H5N1 virus and other influenza A viruses. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Biosystems. 2005 Jul; 81(1): 77-86
    Zhou T, Gu W, Ma J, Sun X, Lu Z

    In this study, we calculated the codon usage bias in H5N1 virus and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in H5N1 virus, five other evolutionary related influenza A viruses and a influenza B virus. Codon usage bias in H5N1 genome is a little slight, which is mainly determined by the base compositions on the third codon position. By comparing synonymous codon usage patterns in different viruses, we observed that the codon usage pattern of H5N1 virus is similar with other influenza A viruses, but not influenza B virus, and the synonymous codon usage in influenza A virus genes is phylogenetically conservative, but not strain-specific. Synonymous codon usage in genes encoded by different influenza A viruses is genus conservative. Compositional constraints could explain most of the variation of synonymous codon usage among these virus genes, while gene function is also correlated to synonymous codon usages to a certain extent. However, translational selection and gene length have no effect on the variations of synonymous codon usage in these virus genes.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Pandemic influenza: are we ready? Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Disaster Manag Response. 2005 Jul-Sep; 3(3): 61-7
    Cinti S

    An influenza pandemic is inevitable, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Southeast Asia has heightened concern that a disaster is imminent. Pandemic preparations are beginning around the world, and it is important for first responders, particularly disaster management personnel, to understand the difference between pandemic and epidemic influenza preparedness. This article will focus on distinguishing between an influenza epidemic and an influenza pandemic and, in light of these distinctions, how to manage the next pandemic with limited resources, particularly the absence of vaccine.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Isolation of a genotypically unique H5N1 influenza virus from duck meat imported into Japan from China. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Virology. 2005 Jun 17;
    Mase M, Eto M, Tanimura N, Imai K, Tsukamoto K, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y, Yamaguchi S

    An H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat processed for human consumption, imported to Japan from Shandong Province, China in 2003. This virus was antigenically different from other H5 viruses, including the Hong Kong H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in 1997 and 2003. Sequence analysis revealed that six genes (PB1, PA, HA, NA, M, and NS) of this virus showed > 97% nucleotide identity with their counterparts from recent H5N1 viruses, but that the remaining two genes (PB2 and NP) were derived from other unknown viruses. This duck meat isolate was highly pathogenic to chickens upon intravenous or intranasal inoculation, replicated well in the lungs of mice and spread to the brain, but was not as pathogenic in mice as H5N1 human isolates (with a dose lethal to 50% of mice (MLD(50)) = 5 x 10(6) 50% egg infectious doses [EID(50)]). However, viruses isolated from the brain of mice previously infected with the virus were substantially more pathogenic (MLD(50) = approximately 10(2) EID(50)) and possessed some amino acid substitutions relative to the original virus. These results show that poultry products contaminated with influenza viruses of high pathogenic potential to mammals are a threat to public health even in countries where the virus is not enzootic and represent a possible source of influenza outbreaks in poultry.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed

    Human infection by avian influenza A H5N1. Open link in new window

    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Hong Kong Med J. 2005 Jun; 11(3): 189-99
    Yuen KY, Wong SS

    The Southeast Asian outbreak of the highly lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infection in humans is unlikely to abate because of the enormous number of backyard farms providing poultry as the main source of food protein in developing countries. This increases the risk of the emergence of a reassortant pandemic influenza virus with improved human-to-human transmissibility. Currently triage of suspected cases by epidemiological risk factors remains the only practical way of case identification for laboratory investigation and infection control. The clinical usefulness of rapid diagnostic laboratory tests requires more vigorous evaluation. The lethality of this disease may reflect systemic viral dissemination, cytokine storm, or alveolar flooding due to inhibition of cellular sodium channels. The present circulating genotype Z is intrinsically resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Prognosis may be improved by early treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor with good systemic drug levels, and post-exposure prophylaxis for health care workers is recommended. The role of immunomodulators and other modalities of therapy requires evaluation in randomised controlled trials, with prospective monitoring of the viral load and cytokine profiles in various clinical specimens. In view of the high fatality of the disease, a combination of contact, droplet, and airborne precautions are recommended as long as resources allow despite the fact that the relative importance of these three modes in nosocomial transmission of avian influenza is still unknown.


     
    Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed
    Posted by dymaxion at 05:31 PM | Comments (0)

    Avian influenza H5N1 and healthcare workers.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul; 11(7): 1158-9
    Schultsz C, Dong VC, Chau NV, Le NT, Lim W, Thanh TT, Dolecek C, de Jong MD, Hien TT, Farrar J


    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Influenza A H5N1 replication sites in humans.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Jul; 11(7): 1036-41
    Uiprasertkul M, Puthavathana P, Sangsiriwut K, Pooruk P, Srisook K, Peiris M, Nicholls JM, Chokephaibulkit K, Vanprapar N, Auewarakul P

    Tissue tropism and pathogenesis of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 disease in humans is not well defined. In mammalian experimental models, H5N1 influenza is a disseminated disease. However, limited previous data from human autopsies have not shown evidence of virus dissemination beyond the lung. We investigated a patient with fatal H5N1 influenza. Viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in lung, intestine, and spleen tissues, but positive-stranded viral RNA indicating virus replication was confined to the lung and intestine. Viral antigen was detected in pneumocytes by immunohistochemical tests. Tumor necrosis factor-? mRNA was seen in lung tissue. In contrast to disseminated infection documented in other mammals and birds, H5N1 viral replication in humans may be restricted to the lung and intestine, and the major site of H5N1 viral replication in the lung is the pneumocyte.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 26; 102(30): 10682-7
    Hulse-Post DJ, Sturm-Ramirez KM, Humberd J, Seiler P, Govorkova EA, Krauss S, Scholtissek C, Puthavathana P, Buranathai C, Nguyen TD, Long HT, Naipospos TS, Chen H, Ellis TM, Guan Y, Peiris JS, Webster RG

    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Protection against multiple influenza A subtypes by vaccination with highly conserved nucleoprotein.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Vaccine. 2005 Jul 9;
    Epstein SL, Kong WP, Misplon JA, Lo CY, Tumpey TM, Xu L, Nabel GJ

    Influenza epidemic and pandemic strains cannot be predicted with certainty. Current vaccines elicit antibodies effective against specific strains, but new strategies are urgently needed for protection against unexpected strains. DNA vaccines encoding conserved antigens protect animals against diverse subtypes, but their potency needs improvement. We tested DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral boost immunization to nucleoprotein (NP). Strong antibody and T cell responses were induced. Protection against challenge was T cell-dependent and substantially more potent than DNA vaccination alone. Importantly, vaccination protected against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Thus, gene-based vaccination with NP may contribute to protective immunity against diverse influenza viruses through its ability to stimulate cellular immunity.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Characterization of a human H5N1 influenza A virus isolated in 2003.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Virol. 2005 Aug; 79(15): 9926-32
    Shinya K, Hatta M, Yamada S, Takada A, Watanabe S, Halfmann P, Horimoto T, Neumann G, Kim JH, Lim W, Guan Y, Peiris M, Kiso M, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y

    In 2003, H5N1 avian influenza virus infections were diagnosed in two Hong Kong residents who had visited the Fujian province in mainland China, affording us the opportunity to characterize one of the viral isolates, A/Hong Kong/213/03 (HK213; H5N1). In contrast to H5N1 viruses isolated from humans during the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong, HK213 retained several features of aquatic bird viruses, including the lack of a deletion in the neuraminidase stalk and the absence of additional oligosaccharide chains at the globular head of the hemagglutinin molecule. It demonstrated weak pathogenicity in mice and ferrets but caused lethal infection in chickens. The original isolate failed to produce disease in ducks but became more pathogenic after five passages. Taken together, these findings portray the HK213 isolate as an aquatic avian influenza A virus without the molecular changes associated with the replication of H5N1 avian viruses in land-based poultry such as chickens. This case challenges the view that adaptation to land-based poultry is a prerequisite for the replication of aquatic avian influenza A viruses in humans.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Virulence may determine the necessary duration and dosage of oseltamivir treatment for highly pathogenic a/vietnam/1203/04 influenza virus in mice.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 15; 192(4): 665-72
    Yen HL, Monto AS, Webster RG, Govorkova EA

    Background. Control of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses is a major public-health concern. Antiviral drugs could be the only option early in the pandemic.Methods. BALB/c mice were given oseltamivir (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg/day) twice daily by oral gavage; the first dose was given 4 h before inoculation with H5N1 A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN1203/04) virus. Five- and 8-day regimens were evaluated.Results. Oseltamivir produced a dose-dependent antiviral effect against VN1203/04 in vivo (P<.01). The 5-day regimen at 10 mg/kg/day protected 50% of mice; deaths in this treatment group were delayed and indicated the replication of residual virus after the completion of treatment. Eight-day regimens improved oseltamivir efficacy, and dosages of 1 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced virus titers in organs and provided 60% and 80% survival rates, respectively (P<.05). Overall, the efficacy of the 5- and 8-day regimens differed significantly (death hazard ratio, 2.658; P<.01). The new H5N1 antigenic variant VN1203/04 was more pathogenic in mice than was A/HK/156/97 virus, and a prolonged and higher-dose oseltamivir regimen may be required for the most beneficial antiviral effect.Conclusions. Oseltamivir prophylaxis is efficacious against lethal challenge with VN1203/04 virus in mice. Viral virulence may affect the antiviral treatment schedule.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection in Migratory Birds.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Science. 2005 Jul 6;
    Liu J, Xiao H, Lei F, Zhu Q, Qin K, Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhao D, Wang G, Feng Y, Ma J, Liu W, Wang J, Gao GF

    H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which hundreds of thousands of birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical features. Sequencing of complete genomes of four H5N1 AIV strains isolated revealed to be reassortants related to a peregrine falcon isolate from Hong Kong and showed known "highly pathogenic" characteristics. Experimental animal infections reproduced typical highly pathogenic AIV-infection symptoms and pathology.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Protecting human and ecological health under viral threats in Asia.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Water Sci Technol. 2005; 51(8): 91-7
    Matsui S

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in 2003, and the avian influenza A (H5N1) also outbroke in 2003 and continued to 2004. These pandemic viral diseases originated in South East Asia. Many human and animal lives were lost. Economic damages due to the pandemics were also very large. The question arises of why did the pandemics originate from South East Asian areas. Human influenza A consists of many sub-types of coronaviruses including the SARS virus and the avian influenza (H5N1) that are all variants of RNA of avian coronavirus. Variants are formed during infection of a coronavirus through not only birds but also mammals, including human beings. There are hot spots where viral infection rates are accelerated among birds, mammals and human beings. Suspicious areas are in South East Asia, where living conditions of birds, mammals and human beings are so close that there are always risks of viral infection. When we see the living conditions of farmers in southern China, northern Vietnam, Laos and northern Myanmar, they commonly raise ducks/chickens with pigs sharing ponds into which they discharge household wastewater, including human excreta, and pig excreta that are significant carriers of viruses. Bird faeces are also key carriers of the viruses. In the ponds, they raise ducks and conduct fish culture. Other important players are migrating birds from North Asia, which are principal vectors of avian influenza viruses. There is an urgent necessity of improving human and ecological health in South East Asia to control viral infection among birds, mammals and human beings. We can hinder the vicious cycle of virus infection through water contamination in ponds by providing good human, pig and chicken sanitation. It is easy to provide good sanitation practices for human, pigs and chickens, introducing collection and treatment of excreta. Our modern water technology can find good solutions for the problem.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Nature. 2005 Jul 14; 436(7048): 191-2
    Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY, Qin K, Wang J, Li KS, Webster RG, Peiris JS, Guan Y


    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Update: Influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 2004-05 season.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Jul 1; 54(25): 631-4


    During the 2004-05 influenza season, influenza A (H1),* A (H3N2), and B viruses cocirculated worldwide, and influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated. In addition, several Asian countries continued to report widespread outbreaks of avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry; in Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia, these outbreaks were associated with severe illnesses and deaths among humans. In the United States, the 2004-05 influenza season peaked in February, was moderate, and was associated predominantly with influenza A (H3N2) viruses. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide during the 2004-05 influenza season.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed [Multi-epitope DNA vaccines against avian influenza in chickens]
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2003 Sep; 19(5): 623-7
    Peng JM, Tong GZ, Wang YF, Qiu HJ

    Multiple epitopes from one or more viruses can be lined up and co-expressed in one vector to generate multi-epitopes DNA vaccines. In the study, four recombinant plasmids were constructed based on HA and NP gene of avian influenza virus (AIV) (H5N1): (1) pIRES/HA, carrying the complete HA gene; (2) pIRES/tHA, carrying a truncated HA gene fragment of major neutralizing antigenic epitopes; (3) pIRES/tHA-NPep, in which three CTL epitopes of NP gene of AIV were fused to the truncated HA from the C-terminal; and (4) pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, which was constructed by replacing neo gene in pIRES/ tHA-NPep with IFN-y of chicken. Fifty five SPF chickens were randomly divided into five groups and immunized with the above four constructs and control plasmid. Each chicken was intramuscally immunized with 200 microg plasmid DNA three times in a two-week interval. Two weeks after the third immunization, chickens were injected with H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus. Before the virus loading no detectable antibodies to HA were found in the chicken serum; but high levels of HI antibodies were detected in the serum of the survived chickens. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in peripheral blood of immunized chickens increased steadily after the vaccination. After virus loading all chickens in the control group died within three to eight days, and the survival rates of the four DNA vaccine groups were as follows: pIRES/HA, 54.5%; pIRES/tHA, 30%, pIRES/ tHA-NPep, 36.3%, pIRES/tHA-NPep-IFN-gamma, 50%. These results indicated that multi-epitopes DNA immunization can induce immune response and protect chickens from homologous virus loading.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Preparing for pandemic vaccination: an international policy agenda for vaccine development.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    J Public Health Policy. 2005 Apr; 26(1): 4-29
    Fedson DS

    The international use of influenza vaccine is growing, especially in developing countries. Since 1997, avian H5N1 influenza in Southeast Asia has caused several human infections and high mortality. Experts warn that the next influenza pandemic is imminent and could be severe. Prevention and control will depend on the rapid production and worldwide distribution of specific pandemic vaccines. If the vaccine supply is to be sufficient to meet global demand, issues related to the intellectual property rights for the reverse genetics technology essential for vaccine production must be resolved. In addition, candidate "pandemic-like" vaccines must be developed and tested in clinical trials to determine the most antigen sparing formulation and the best vaccination schedule. These studies must involve all vaccine companies and will require international coordination and public funding. Whether this international policy agenda for pandemic vaccine development will succeed is uncertain, but it will provide a good indication of whether "good governance" for global public health can be achieved.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Analysis of synonymous codon usage in H5N1 virus and other influenza A viruses.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Biosystems. 2005 Jul; 81(1): 77-86
    Zhou T, Gu W, Ma J, Sun X, Lu Z

    In this study, we calculated the codon usage bias in H5N1 virus and performed a comparative analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in H5N1 virus, five other evolutionary related influenza A viruses and a influenza B virus. Codon usage bias in H5N1 genome is a little slight, which is mainly determined by the base compositions on the third codon position. By comparing synonymous codon usage patterns in different viruses, we observed that the codon usage pattern of H5N1 virus is similar with other influenza A viruses, but not influenza B virus, and the synonymous codon usage in influenza A virus genes is phylogenetically conservative, but not strain-specific. Synonymous codon usage in genes encoded by different influenza A viruses is genus conservative. Compositional constraints could explain most of the variation of synonymous codon usage among these virus genes, while gene function is also correlated to synonymous codon usages to a certain extent. However, translational selection and gene length have no effect on the variations of synonymous codon usage in these virus genes.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Pandemic influenza: are we ready?
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Disaster Manag Response. 2005 Jul-Sep; 3(3): 61-7
    Cinti S

    An influenza pandemic is inevitable, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Southeast Asia has heightened concern that a disaster is imminent. Pandemic preparations are beginning around the world, and it is important for first responders, particularly disaster management personnel, to understand the difference between pandemic and epidemic influenza preparedness. This article will focus on distinguishing between an influenza epidemic and an influenza pandemic and, in light of these distinctions, how to manage the next pandemic with limited resources, particularly the absence of vaccine.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Isolation of a genotypically unique H5N1 influenza virus from duck meat imported into Japan from China.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Virology. 2005 Jun 17;
    Mase M, Eto M, Tanimura N, Imai K, Tsukamoto K, Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y, Yamaguchi S

    An H5N1 influenza A virus was isolated from duck meat processed for human consumption, imported to Japan from Shandong Province, China in 2003. This virus was antigenically different from other H5 viruses, including the Hong Kong H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in 1997 and 2003. Sequence analysis revealed that six genes (PB1, PA, HA, NA, M, and NS) of this virus showed > 97% nucleotide identity with their counterparts from recent H5N1 viruses, but that the remaining two genes (PB2 and NP) were derived from other unknown viruses. This duck meat isolate was highly pathogenic to chickens upon intravenous or intranasal inoculation, replicated well in the lungs of mice and spread to the brain, but was not as pathogenic in mice as H5N1 human isolates (with a dose lethal to 50% of mice (MLD(50)) = 5 x 10(6) 50% egg infectious doses [EID(50)]). However, viruses isolated from the brain of mice previously infected with the virus were substantially more pathogenic (MLD(50) = approximately 10(2) EID(50)) and possessed some amino acid substitutions relative to the original virus. These results show that poultry products contaminated with influenza viruses of high pathogenic potential to mammals are a threat to public health even in countries where the virus is not enzootic and represent a possible source of influenza outbreaks in poultry.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Human infection by avian influenza A H5N1.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Hong Kong Med J. 2005 Jun; 11(3): 189-99
    Yuen KY, Wong SS

    The Southeast Asian outbreak of the highly lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infection in humans is unlikely to abate because of the enormous number of backyard farms providing poultry as the main source of food protein in developing countries. This increases the risk of the emergence of a reassortant pandemic influenza virus with improved human-to-human transmissibility. Currently triage of suspected cases by epidemiological risk factors remains the only practical way of case identification for laboratory investigation and infection control. The clinical usefulness of rapid diagnostic laboratory tests requires more vigorous evaluation. The lethality of this disease may reflect systemic viral dissemination, cytokine storm, or alveolar flooding due to inhibition of cellular sodium channels. The present circulating genotype Z is intrinsically resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Prognosis may be improved by early treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor with good systemic drug levels, and post-exposure prophylaxis for health care workers is recommended. The role of immunomodulators and other modalities of therapy requires evaluation in randomised controlled trials, with prospective monitoring of the viral load and cytokine profiles in various clinical specimens. In view of the high fatality of the disease, a combination of contact, droplet, and airborne precautions are recommended as long as resources allow despite the fact that the relative importance of these three modes in nosocomial transmission of avian influenza is still unknown.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Probable tiger-to-tiger transmission of avian influenza H5N1.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 May; 11(5): 699-701
    Thanawongnuwech R, Amonsin A, Tantilertcharoen R, Damrongwatanapokin S, Theamboonlers A, Payungporn S, Nanthapornphiphat K, Ratanamungklanon S, Tunak E, Songserm T, Vivatthanavanich V, Lekdumrongsak T, Kesdangsakonwut S, Tunhikorn S, Poovorawan Y

    During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in January 2004. This finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in smuggled Thai eagles, Belgium.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 May; 11(5): 702-5
    Van Borm S, Thomas I, Hanquet G, Lambrecht B, Boschmans M, Dupont G, Decaestecker M, Snacken R, van den Berg T

    We report the isolation and characterization of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus from Crested Hawk-Eagles smuggled into Europe by air travel. A screening performed in human and avian contacts indicated no dissemination occurred. Illegal movements of birds are a major threat for the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Are we ready for pandemic influenza H5N1?
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005 Apr; 4(2): 151-5
    Stephenson I

    Influenza is an important annual respiratory pathogen with the potential to cause infrequent pandemics with devastating consequences. The establishment of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 as an endemic virus within duck and poultry populations in Asia increases the possibility of adaptation to humans and the threat of an emerging pandemic. Vaccines are the mainstay of prophylaxis against influenza, but there are technical and safety issues that must be overcome in the development of vaccines in order to combat avian influenza. Pandemic preparedness plans have been developed by national and international authorities but may be compromised by a lack of readily available interventions.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMed Precautions in ophthalmic practice in a hospital with a major acute SARS outbreak: an experience from Hong Kong.
    HubMed - H5N1 —
    Eye. 2005 Apr 29;
    Chan WM, Liu DT, Chan PK, Chong KK, Yuen KS, Chiu TY, Tam BS, Ng JS, Lam DS

    Many new infectious diseases in humans have been derived from animal sources in the past 20 years. Some are highly contagious and fatal. Vaccination may not be available and antiviral drugs are not effective enough. Infectious control is important in clinical medicine and in Ophthalmology. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), as an example, is a highly contagious respiratory disease that has recently been reported in Asia, North America, and Europe. Within a matter of weeks, the outbreak has evolved to become a global health threat and more than 30 countries have been afflicted with a novel Coronavirus strain (SARS-CoV) that is the aetiologic agent of SARS. The primary route of transmission of SARS appears involving close person-to-person contact through droplets. Ophthalmologists may be particularly susceptible to the infection as routine ophthalmic examinations like direct ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp examination are usually performed in a setting that has close doctor-patient contact. Being the Ophthalmology Department of the only hospital in the world that has just gone through the largest outbreak of SARS, we would like to share our strategy, measures, and experiences of preventing contracting or spreading of SARS infection as an infection control model. SARS is one of the many viruses against which personnel will need protecting in an ophthalmic setting. The experiences attained and the measures established might also apply to other infectious conditions spreading by droplets such as the avian influenza with H5N1.Eye advance online publication, 29 April 2005; doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6701885.

    HubMed - H5N1 Today 9:54:00 PM - by HubMedNewspaper Tips

    Posted by dymaxion at 05:24 PM | Comments (0)

    July 27, 2005

    tt1

    test

    Posted by dymaxion at 03:58 PM | Comments (0)

    ministry said Friday that cases of bird flu virus found in Siberia's Novosibirsk region were of the deadly H5N1 type that can be transmitted
    to humans. '
    Xinhua reports Streptococcus suis has been found
    in five cities in southwest Sichuan . The death toll is still at 32.